How to make a flat list out of list of lists

I wonder whether there is a shortcut to make a simple list out of list of lists in Python.

I can do that in a for loop, but maybe there is some cool “one-liner”? I tried it with reduce , but I get an error.

Code

l = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6], [7], [8, 9]]
reduce(lambda x, y: x.extend(y), l)

Error message

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <lambda>
AttributeError: 'NoneType' object has no attribute 'extend'
1 Like

Given a list of lists l ,

flat_list = [item for sublist in l for item in sublist]

which means:

flat_list = []
for sublist in l:
    for item in sublist:
        flat_list.append(item)

is faster than the shortcuts posted so far. ( l is the list to flatten.)

Here is the corresponding function:

flatten = lambda l: [item for sublist in l for item in sublist]

As evidence, you can use the timeit module in the standard library:

$ python -mtimeit -s'l=[[1,2,3],[4,5,6], [7], [8,9]]*99' '[item for sublist in l for item in sublist]'
10000 loops, best of 3: 143 usec per loop
$ python -mtimeit -s'l=[[1,2,3],[4,5,6], [7], [8,9]]*99' 'sum(l, [])'
1000 loops, best of 3: 969 usec per loop
$ python -mtimeit -s'l=[[1,2,3],[4,5,6], [7], [8,9]]*99' 'reduce(lambda x,y: x+y,l)'
1000 loops, best of 3: 1.1 msec per loop

Explanation: the shortcuts based on + (including the implied use in sum ) are, of necessity, O(L**2) when there are L sublists – as the intermediate result list keeps getting longer, at each step a new intermediate result list object gets allocated, and all the items in the previous intermediate result must be copied over (as well as a few new ones added at the end). So, for simplicity and without actual loss of generality, say you have L sublists of I items each: the first I items are copied back and forth L-1 times, the second I items L-2 times, and so on; total number of copies is I times the sum of x for x from 1 to L excluded, i.e., I * (L**2)/2 .

The list comprehension just generates one list, once, and copies each item over (from its original place of residence to the result list) also exactly once.

Refer: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/952914/how-to-make-a-flat-list-out-of-list-of-lists