Migrate - Database migrations. CLI and Golang library


Database migrations written in Go. Use as CLI or import as library.

  • Migrate reads migrations from sources and applies them in correct order to a database.
  • Drivers are “dumb”, migrate glues everything together and makes sure the logic is bulletproof. (Keeps the drivers lightweight, too.)
  • Database drivers don’t assume things or try to correct user input. When in doubt, fail.

Forked from mattes/migrate


Database drivers run migrations. Add a new database?

Database URLs

Database connection strings are specified via URLs. The URL format is driver dependent but generally has the form: dbdriver://username:[email protected]:port/dbname?option1=true&option2=false

Any reserved URL characters need to be escaped. Note, the % character also needs to be escaped

Explicitly, the following characters need to be escaped: ! , # , $ , % , & , ' , ( , ) , * , + , , , / , : , ; , = , ? , @ , [ , ]

It’s easiest to always run the URL parts of your DB connection URL (e.g. username, password, etc) through an URL encoder. See the example Python snippets below:

$ python3 -c ‘import urllib.parse; print(urllib.parse.quote(input("String to encode: "), “”))’
String to encode: FAKEpassword!#$%&’()+,/:;[email protected][]*
$ python2 -c ‘import urllib; print urllib.quote(raw_input("String to encode: "), “”)’
String to encode: FAKEpassword!#$%&’()+,/:;[email protected][]*

Migration Sources

Source drivers read migrations from local or remote sources. Add a new source?

CLI usage

  • Simple wrapper around this library.
  • Handles ctrl+c (SIGINT) gracefully.
  • No config search paths, no config files, no magic ENV var injections.

CLI Documentation

Basic usage

$ migrate -source file://path/to/migrations -database postgres://localhost:5432/database up 2

Docker usage

$ docker run -v {{ migration dir }}:/migrations --network host migrate/migrate**emphasized text
-path=/migrations/ -database postgres://localhost:5432/database up 2

Use in your Go project

  • API is stable and frozen for this release (v3 & v4).
  • Uses Go modules to manage dependencies.
  • To help prevent database corruptions, it supports graceful stops via GracefulStop chan bool .
  • Bring your own logger.
  • Uses io.Reader streams internally for low memory overhead.
  • Thread-safe and no goroutine leaks.

Go Documentation

import (
_ “github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4/database/postgres
_ “github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4/source/github

func main() {

m, err := migrate.New(
    "github://mattes:[email protected]/migrate_test",


Want to use an existing database client?

import (
_ “github.com/lib/pq
_ “github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4/source/file

func main() {

db, err := sql.Open("postgres", "postgres://localhost:5432/database?sslmode=enable")
driver, err := postgres.WithInstance(db, &postgres.Config{})
m, err := migrate.NewWithDatabaseInstance(
    "postgres", driver)


Getting started

Go to getting started


(more tutorials to come)

Migration files

Each migration has an up and down migration. Why?

1481574547_create_users_table.up.sql 1481574547_create_users_table.down.sql

Best practices: How to write migrations.


Version Supported? Import Notes
master import "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4" New features and bug fixes arrive here first
v4 import "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate/v4" Used for stable releases
v3 import "github.com/golang-migrate/migrate" (with package manager) or import "gopkg.in/golang-migrate/migrate.v3" (not recommended) DO NOT USE - No longer supported

Development and Contributing

Yes, please! Makefile is your friend, read the development guide.

Also have a look at the FAQ.

Looking for alternatives? https://awesome-go.com/#database.

Nguồn : GitHub